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Posts : 2
Join date : 2011-12-17

PostSubject: Sword vs Ax   Sat Dec 17, 2011 7:30 pm

Hello,this si partily my opinion and fact i am here to discuss your pinion about the topic too and add someom more info would be quite helpful And now for our frist contender the sword
History of the sword:
Ancient history[edit] Bronze AgeMain article: Bronze Age sword

Apa type swords, 17th century BC.The sword developed from the dagger when the construction of longer blades became possible, from the late 3rd millennium BC in the Middle East, first in arsenic copper, then in tin-bronze. The oldest sword-like weapons are found at Arslantepe, Turkey, and date to around 3300 BC.[4] However, it is generally considered that these are longer daggers, and not the first ancestors of swords. Sword blades longer than 60 cm (24 in) were rare and not practical until the late Bronze Age because at longer lengths, the tensile strength of bronze starts to decrease radically, and consequently longer blades would bend easily. It was not until the development of stronger alloys such as steel, and improved heat treatment processes that longswords became practical for combat. They were also used as decorations.[5]

The swords found together with the Nebra skydisk, ca. 1600 BC.The hilt, either from organic materials or bronze (the latter often highly decorated with spiral patterns, for example), at first simply allowed a firm grip and prevented the hand from slipping onto the blade when executing a thrust or the sword slipping out of the hand in a cut. Some of the early swords typically had small and slender blades intended for thrusting. Later swords were broader and were both cutting and thrusting weapons. A typical variant for European swords is the leaf-shaped blade, which was most common in North-West Europe at the end of the Bronze Age, in the British Isles and Ireland in particular. Robert Drews linked the Naue Type II Swords, which spread from Southern Europe into the Mediterranean, with the Late Bronze Age collapse.[6][7]

Sword production in China is attested from the Bronze Age Shang Dynasty.[8] The technology for bronze swords reached its high point during the Warring States period and Qin Dynasty. Amongst the Warring States period swords, some unique technologies were used, such as casting high tin edges over softer, lower tin cores, or the application of diamond shaped patterns on the blade (see sword of Goujian). Also unique for Chinese bronzes is the consistent use of high tin bronze (17–21% tin) which is very hard and breaks if stressed too far, whereas other cultures preferred lower tin bronze (usually 10%), which bends if stressed too far. Although iron swords were made alongside bronze, it was not until the early Han period that iron completely replaced bronze.[9]

In South Asia earliest available Bronze age swords of copper were discovered in the Harappan sites, in present-day Pakistan, and date back to 2300 BC. Swords have been recovered in archaeological findings throughout the Ganges-Jamuna Doab region of Bangladesh, consisting of bronze but more commonly copper.[10] Diverse specimens have been discovered in Fatehgarh, where there are several varieties of hilt.[10] These swords have been variously dated to times between 1700–1400 BC, but were probably used more notably in the opening centuries of the 1st millennium BC.[10]

[edit] Iron Age
19th century illustration of Hallstatt swordsMain article: Iron Age sword
Iron became increasingly common from the 13th century BC, mainly due to the collapse of the bronze producing Civilizations.[11] The Hittites, the Egyptians[12] and the Proto-Celtic Hallstatt culture (8th century BC) figured among the early users of iron swords. Iron has the advantage of mass-production due to the wider availability of the raw material. Early iron swords were not comparable to later steel blades. The iron was not quench-hardened although often containing sufficient carbon, but work-hardened like bronze by hammering. This made them comparable or only slightly better in terms of strength and hardness to bronze swords. They could still bend during use rather than spring back into shape. But the easier production, and the better availability of the raw material for the first time permitted the equipment of entire armies with metal weapons, though Bronze Age Egyptian armies were at times fully equipped with bronze weapons.[13]

[edit] Greco-Roman AntiquityFurther information: Migration period sword
By the time of Classical Antiquity and the Parthian and Sassanid Empires in Iran, iron swords were common. The Greek xiphos and the Roman gladius are typical examples of the type, measuring some 60 to 70 cm (24 to 28 in).[14][15] The late Roman Empire introduced the longer spatha[16] (the term for its wielder, spatharius, became a court rank in Constantinople), and from this time, the term longsword is applied to swords comparatively long for their respective periods.[17]

Swords from the Parthian and Sassanian Empires were quite long, the blades on some late Sassanian swords being just under a metre long.

Swords were also used to administer various physical punishments, such as non-surgical amputation or capital punishment by decapitation. The use of a sword, an honorable weapon, was regarded in Europe since Roman times as a privilege reserved for the nobility and the upper classes.[18]

The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea mentions swords of Indian iron and steel being exported from India to Greece.[19] Sri Lankan and Indian Blades made of Damascus steel also found their way into Persia.[19]

[edit] Chinese Antiquity
The Bronze sword of King Goujian of Yue (reigned 496 BCE - 465 BCE), with bird script; detail—part of inscription: "越王自作" Yuè Wáng zì zuò, “Made by the King of Yuè”. Húbĕi Provincial Museum.Chinese steel swords made their first appearance in the later part of the Western Zhou Dynasty, but were not widely used until the 3rd century BC Han Dynasty.[9] The Chinese Dao (刀 pinyin dāo) is single-edged, sometimes translated as sabre or broadsword, and the Jian (劍or剑 pinyin jiàn) is double-edged.

[edit] Middle Ages[edit] Europe and the Middle East
Battle scene from the Morgan Bible of Louis IX showing 13th century swordsDuring the Middle Ages sword technology improved, and the sword became a very advanced weapon. It was frequently used by men in battle, particularly during an attack. The spatha type remained popular throughout the Migration period and well into the Middle Ages. Vendel Age spathas were decorated with Germanic artwork (not unlike the Germanic bracteates fashioned after Roman coins). The Viking Age saw again a more standardized production, but the basic design remained indebted to the spatha.[20]

Around the 10th century, the use of properly quenched hardened and tempered steel started to become much more common than in previous periods. The Frankish 'Ulfberht' blades (the name of the maker inlaid in the blade) were of particularly consistent high quality.[21] Charles the Bald tried to prohibit the export of these swords, as they were used by Vikings in raids against the Franks. Wootz steel which is also known as Damascus steel was a unique and highly prized steel developed on the Indian subcontinent as early as the 5th century BC. Its properties were unique due to the special smelting and reworking of the steel creating networks of iron carbides described as a globular cementite in a matrix of pearlite. The use of Damascus steel in swords became extremely popular in the 16th and 17th centuries.[nb 1][22]

It was only from the 11th century that Norman swords began to develop the quillons or crossguard. During the Crusades of the 12th to 13th century, this cruciform type of arming sword remained essentially stable, with variations mainly concerning the shape of the pommel. These swords were designed as cutting weapons, although effective points were becoming common to counter improvements in armour, especially the 14th century change from chain mail to plate armour.[23]

It was during the 14th century, with the growing use of more advanced armor, that the Hand and a half sword, also known as a "bastard sword", came into being. It had an extended grip that meant it could be used with either one or two hands. Though these swords did not provide a full two-hand grip they allowed their wielders to hold a shield or parrying dagger in their off hand, or to use it as a two-handed sword for a more powerful blow.[24]

The earliest evidence of curved swords, or scimitars (and other regional variants as the Arabian saif, the Persian shamshir and the Turkic kilij) is from the 9th century, when it was used among soldiers in the Khurasan region of Persia.[25]

[edit] East Asia
Chinese Dao Sabre (Decorative or acrobatic version)As steel technology improved, single-edged weapons became popular throughout Asia. Derived from the Chinese Jian or dao, the Korean hwandudaedo are known from the early medieval Three Kingdoms. Production of the Japanese tachi, a precursor to the katana, is recorded from ca. 900 AD (see Japanese sword).[26] Japan was famous for the swords it forged in the early 13th century for the class of warrior-nobility known as the samurai. A samurai's primary weapon was the katana, which was used for infantry. Other infantry swords included: wakizashi (shorter companion sword for katana), nodachi, kubikiri, tantō and hachiwara. Cavalry swords were the tachi and ancient tachi. Temple swords included the one-handed tachi and Chokutō.[27] Anti-cavalry swords such as the extremely long Song Dynasty era zhanmadao (literally "horse chopping sword") and the Japanese Zanbatō also developed at the time.[28]

Katana of the 16th or 17th century, with its saya.The Japanese katana reached the height of its development in the 15th and 16th centuries, when samurai increasingly found a need for a sword to use in closer quarters, leading to the creation of the modern katana.[29]

[edit] South and Southeast AsiaThe swords manufactured in Indian workshops, such as the Khanda, find mention in the writing of Muhammad al-Idrisi.[30] In Sri Lanka, a unique wind furnace was used to produce the high quality steel. This gave the blade a very hard cutting edge and beautiful patterns. For these reasons it became a very popular trading material.[31]

The Talwar is a type of curved sword that was introduced to India in the 13th century by invading Muslim conquerors and was adopted by communities who favoured the sword as their main weapon, including the Rajputs, Marathas and Sikhs. It became more widespread under the Mughals who fought with curved swords from horseback.[32] It was revered by the Rajputs as a symbol of the god shiva, and is still used today as the primary weapon of the Sikh martial art Gatka and also by South Asian Shiite Muslims for Tatbir.[33]

The Firangi ( /fəˈrɪŋɡiː/; derived from the Arabic term for a Western European a "Frank") was a sword type which used blades manufactured in Western Europe and imported by the Portuguese, or made locally in imitation of European blades. Because of its length the firangi is usually regarded as primarily a cavalry weapon. The sword has been especially associated with the Marathas, who were famed for their cavalry. However, the firangi was widely used by the Mughals and those peoples who came under their rule, including Sikhs and Rajputs.[34]

In Indonesia, the images of Indian style swords can be found in Hindu gods statues from ancient Java circa 8th to 10th century, which means swords already known in ancient Indonesia culture. However the native types of blade known as kris, parang, klewang and golok are popular to be used as weapon rather than sword. These daggers are shorter than sword but longer than common dagger.

In The Philippines a large swords known as the Kampilan and the Panabas were used in combat by the local Moro tribes in the southern island of Mindanao. A notable wielder of the kampílan was Datu Lapu-Lapu, the Muslim king of Mactan and his warriors who defeated the Spaniards and killed Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan at the Battle of Mactan on April 27, 1521.[35]

[edit] Late Middle Ages and RenaissanceMain articles: Longsword and Zweihänder
From around 1300 to 1500, in concert with improved armour, innovative sword designs evolved more and more rapidly. The main transition was the lengthening of the grip, allowing two-handed use, and a longer blade. By 1400, this type of sword, at the time called langes Schwert (longsword) or spadone, was common, and a number of 15th and 16th century Fechtbücher offering instructions on their use survive. Another variant was the specialized armour-piercing swords of the estoc type. The longsword became popular due to its extreme reach and cutting and thrusting abilities.[36]

1548 depiction of a Zweihänder used against pikes in the Battle of KappelThe estoc became popular because of its ability to thrust into the gaps between plates of armour.[37] The grip was sometimes wrapped in wire or coarse animal hide to provide a better grip and to make it harder to knock a sword out of the user's hand.[38]

A number of manuscripts covering longsword combat and techniques dating from the 13th–16th centuries exist in German,[39] Italian, and English,[40] providing extensive information on longsword combatives as used throughout this period. Many of these are now readily available online.[39][40]

In the 16th century, the large zweihander was used by the elite German mercenaries known as doppelsoldners.[41] Zweihander, literally translated, means two-hander. The zweihander possesses a long, blade, as well as a huge guard for protection. It is estimated that some zweihander swords were over 6 feet (1.8 m) long, with the one ascribed to Frisian warrior Pier Gerlofs Donia being 7 feet (2.13 m) long.[42] The gigantic blade length was perfectly designed for manipulating and pushing away enemy pole-arms, which were major weapons around this time, in both Germany and Eastern Europe. Doppelsoldners also used katzbalgers, which means 'cat-gutter'. The katzbalger's S-shaped guard and 2-foot-long (0.61 m) blade made it perfect for bringing in when the fighting became too close to use a zweihander.[43]

Civilian use of swords became increasingly common during the late Renaissance, with duels being a preferred way to honorably settle disputes. The practice of civilian dueling, with specifically designed civilian swords such as the Italian Cinquedea and Swiss Baselard, became so popular that according to one scholar: "In France during the reign of Henry IV (1589–1610), more than 4,000 French aristocrats were killed in duels in an eighteen-year period...During the reign of Louis XIII (1610–1643) a twenty-year period 8,000 pardons were issued for murders associated with duels."[44]

The side-sword was a type of war sword used by infantry during the Renaissance of Europe. This sword was a direct descendant of the arming sword. Quite popular between the 16th and 17th centuries, they were ideal for handling the mix of armored and unarmored opponents of that time. A new technique of placing one's finger on the ricasso to improve the grip (a practice that would continue in the rapier) led to the production of hilts with a guard for the finger.[45] This sword design eventually led to the development of the civilian rapier, but it was not replaced by it, and the side-sword continued to be used during the rapier's lifetime. As it could be used for both cutting and thrusting, the term cut and thrust sword is sometimes used interchangeably with side-sword.[46] Also of note is that as rapiers became more popular, attempts were made to hybridize the blade, sacrificing the effectiveness found in each unique weapon design. These are still considered side-swords and are sometimes labeled sword rapier or cutting rapier by modern collectors.[47]

Also of note, side-swords used in conjunction with bucklers became so popular that it caused the term swashbuckler to be coined. This word stems from the new fighting style of the side-sword and buckler which was filled with much "swashing and making a noise on the buckler".[48]

Within the Ottoman Empire, the use of a curved sabre called the Yatagan started in the mid-16th century. It would become the weapon of choice for many in Turkey and the Balkans.[49]

The sword in this time period was the most personal weapon, the most prestigious, and the most versatile for close combat, but it came to decline in military use as technology, such as the crossbow and firearms changed warfare. However, it maintained a key role in civilian self-defense.[50]

[edit] Early Modern periodFurther information: Rapier, Backsword, Smallsword, and Sabre
The rapier is believed to have evolved either from the Spanish espada ropera or from the swords of the Italian nobility somewhere in the later part of the 16th century.[51][52] The rapier differed from most earlier swords in that it was not a military weapon but a primarily civilian sword. Both the rapier and the Italian schiavona developed the crossguard into a basket-shaped guard for hand protection.[53] During the 17th and 18th centuries, the shorter smallsword became an essential fashion accessory in European countries and the New World, though in some places such as the Scottish Highlands large swords as the basket-hilted broadsword were preferred, and most wealthy men and military officers carried one slung from a belt. Both the smallsword and the rapier remained popular dueling swords well into the 18th century.[54]

As the wearing of swords fell out of fashion, canes took their place in a gentleman's wardrobe. This developed to the gentlemen in the Victorian era to use the umbrella. Some examples of canes—those known as sword canes or swordsticks—incorporate a concealed blade. The French martial art la canne developed to fight with canes and swordsticks and has now evolved into a sport. The English martial art singlestick is very similar.

[edit] Modern historyFurther information: Épée and Sword replica
Towards the end of its useful life, the sword served more as a weapon of self-defense than for use on the battlefield, and the military importance of swords steadily decreased during the Modern Age. Even as a personal sidearm, the sword began to lose its preeminence in the early 19th century, paralleling the development of reliable handguns.[50]

However, swords were still used in combat, especially in Colonial Wars between native populations and Colonial Empires. For example, during the Aceh War the Acehnese Klewangs, a sword similar to the machete, proved very effective in close quarters combat with Dutch troops, leading the Royal Netherlands East Indies Army to adopt a heavy cutlass, also called klewang (very similar in appearance to the US Navy Model 1917 Cutlass) to counter it. Mobile troops armed with carbines and klewangs succeeded in suppressing Aceh resistance where traditional infantry with rifle and bayonet had failed. From that time on until the 1950s the Royal Dutch East Indies Army, Royal Dutch Army, Royal Dutch Navy and Dutch police used these cutlasses called Klewang.[55][56]

British Major Jack Churchill (far right) leads a training exercise, sword in hand, in World War II.Swords continued in use, but were increasingly limited to military commissioned officers' and non-commissioned officers' ceremonial uniforms, although most armies retained heavy cavalry until well after World War I. For example, the British Army formally adopted a completely new design of cavalry sword in 1908, almost the last change in British Army weapons before the outbreak of the war.[57] At the outbreak of World War I, in August 1914, infantry officers in all combatant armies still carried swords as part of their field equipment. The high visibility and limited practical use of the weapon however led to it being abandoned within weeks, although most mounted cavalry continued to carry sabres throughout the War. In China troops used the long anti-cavalry Miao dao well into the Second Sino-Japanese War. The last units of British heavy cavalry switched to using armoured vehicles as late as 1938. Swords and other dedicated melee weapons were used occasionally by many countries during World War II, but typically as a secondary weapon as they were outclassed by coexisting firearms.[58][59][60]

The production of replicas of historical swords originates with 19th century historicism.[61] Contemporary replicas can range from cheap factory produced look-alikes to exact recreations of individual artifacts, including an approximation of the historical production methods.

Some kinds of swords are still commonly used today as weapons, often as a side arm for military infantry. The Japanese katana, wakizashi and tanto are carried by some infantry and officers in Japan and other parts of Asia and the kukri is the official melee weapon for India. Other swords in use today are the sabre, the scimitar, the shortsword and the machete.[61]

In the 2011 Libyan civil war, some rebels have been seen armed with swords as either primary or secondary weapons. [62]

[edit] Ceremonial useSwords are commonly worn as a ceremonial item in many military and naval services throughout the world. Occasions to wear swords include any event in dress uniforms where the rank-and-file carry arms: parades, reviews, tattoos, and changes of command. They are also commonly worn for officers' weddings, and when wearing dress uniforms to church—although they are rarely actually worn in the church itself.

In the British forces they are also worn for any appearance at Court. In the United States, every Naval officer at or above the rank of Lieutenant Commander is required to own a sword, which can be prescribed for any formal outdoor ceremonial occasion; they are normally worn for changes of command and parades. For some Navy parades, cutlasses are issued to Petty Officers and Chief Petty Officers.

In the U.S. Marine Corps every officer must own a sword, which are prescribed for formal parades and other ceremonies where dress uniforms are worn and the rank-and-file are under arms. On these occasions depending on their billet, Marine Staff Non-Commissioned Officers (E-6 and above) may also be required to carry swords, which have hilts of a pattern similar to U.S. Naval officers' swords but are actually sabres. The USMC Model 1859 NCO Sword is the longest continuously-issued edged weapon in the U.S. inventory

The Marine officer swords are of the Mameluke pattern which was adopted in 1825 in recognition of the Marines' key role in the capture of the Tripolitan city of Derna during the First Barbary War.[63] Taken out of issue for approximately 20 years from 1855 go 1875, it was restored to service in the year of the Corps' centennial and has remained in issue since.

Long history huh now for the morphology of the sword
MorphologyThe sword consists of the blade and the hilt. The term scabbard applies to the cover for the sword blade when not in use.

Double-edged bladesThe blade may have grooves known as fullers for lightening the blade while allowing it to retain its strength and stiffness, similar to the effect produced by a steel I-beam used in construction. The blade may taper more or less sharply towards a point, used for thrusting. The part of the blade between the Center of Percussion (CoP) and the point is called the foible (weak) of the blade, and that between the Center of Balance (CoB) and the hilt is the forte (strong). The section in between the CoP and the CoB is the middle. The ricasso or shoulder identifies a short section of blade immediately forward of the guard that is left completely unsharpened, and can be gripped with a finger to increase tip control. Many swords have no ricasso. On some large weapons, such as the German Zweihänder, a metal cover surrounded the ricasso, and a swordsman might grip it in one hand to wield the weapon more easily in close-quarter combat.[43] The ricasso normally bears the maker's mark.

[edit] TangIn the case of a rat-tail tang, the maker welds a thin rod to the end of the blade at the crossguard; this rod goes through the grip.[64] [65]
In traditional construction, Swordsmiths peened such tangs over the end of the pommel, or occasionally welded the hilt furniture to the tang and threaded the end for screwing on a pommel. This style is often referred to as a "narrow" or "hidden" tang. Modern, less traditional, replicas often feature a threaded pommel or a pommel nut which holds the hilt together and allows dismantling.[65]
In a "full" tang (most commonly used in knives and machetes), the tang has about the same width as the blade, and is generally the same shape as the grip.[64] In European or Asian swords sold today, many advertised "full" tangs may actually involve a forged rat-tail tang.[66]

On Japanese blades, the maker's mark appears on the tang under the grip.[67]

[edit] Single-edged bladesSingle-edged blades do not fall under the term "sword" in the narrow sense (see sabre, scimitar), but are often included in a more loose meaning of the term. These blades often have a secondary "false edge" near the tip.[68]

ok then if i need to add more just tell me now for the other corner the battle axe

Through the course of human history, commonplace objects have been pressed into service as weapons. Axes, by virtue of their ubiquity, are no exception. Besides axes designed for combat, there were many axes that doubled as tools and weapons. Axes could be modified into deadly projectiles as well (see the francisca for an example). Axes were always cheaper than swords and considerably more available.

Battle axes generally weigh far less than modern splitting axes, especially mauls, because they were designed to cut legs and arms rather than wood; consequently, narrowish slicing blades are the norm. This facilitates deep, grievous wounds. Moreover, a lighter weapon is much quicker to bring to bear in combat and manipulate for repeated strikes against an adversary.

The crescent-shaped heads of European battle axes of the Roman and post-Roman periods were usually made of wrought iron with a carbon steel edge or, as time elapsed across the many centuries of the medieval era, pure steel. The hardwood handles of military axes came to be reinforced with metal bands called langets, so that an enemy warrior could not cut the shaft. Some later specimens had all-metal handles.

Battle axes are particularly associated in Western popular imagination with the Vikings. Certainly, Scandinavian foot soldiers and maritime marauders employed them as a stock weapon during their heyday, which extended from the beginning of the eighth century to the end of the 11th century. They produced several varieties, including specialized throwing axes (see francisca) and "bearded" axes or "skegox" (so named for their trailing lower blade edge which increased cleaving power and could be used to catch the edge of an opponent's shield and pull it down, leaving the shield-bearer vulnerable to a follow-up blow). Viking axes were wielded with one hand or two, depending on the length of the plain wooden haft.
now for inof on axes form different cultures and what they are used for before and toay
Europe[edit] Prehistory & the Ancient MediterraneanStone hand axes were in use in the Paleolithic period for hundreds of thousands of years. The first hafted stone axes appear to have been produced about 6000 BCE during the Mesolithic period. Technological development continued in the Neolithic period (see, for example, the entry for the Battle-axe people of Scandinavia, who treated their axes as high-status cultural objects). Narrow axe heads made of cast metals were subsequently manufactured by artisans in the Middle East and then Europe during the Copper Age and the Bronze Age. The earliest specimens were socket-less.

More specifically, bronze battle-axe heads are attested in the archeological record from ancient China and the New Kingdom of ancient Egypt. Some of them were suited for practical use as infantry weapons while others were clearly intended to be brandished as symbols of status and authority, judging by the quality of their decoration.

In the eastern Mediterranean Basin during the Iron Age, the double-bladed labrys axe was prevalent, and a hafted, single-bitted axe made of bronze or later iron was sometimes used as a weapon of war by the heavy infantry of ancient Greece, especially when confronted with thickly-armored opponents. The sagaris—described as either single bitted or double bitted—became associated by the Greeks with the mythological Amazons, though these were generally ceremonial axes rather than practical implements. The Roman Army equipped itself with axes. Legionaries used them as laboring tools rather than as weapons of war. However, the so-called Barbarian tribes that the Romans encountered north of the Alps did include iron war axes in their armories, alongside swords and spears.

[edit] The Middle Ages
An ornamented, 7th-century Merovingian battle axe head on display in the British Museum.[1][2]Battle axes were common in Europe in the Migration Period and the subsequent Viking Age, and they famously figure on the 11th-century Bayeaux Tapestry, which depicts Norman mounted knights pitted against Anglo-Saxon infantrymen. They continued to be employed throughout the rest of the Middle Ages; although they dipped in popularity during the 12th, 13th and 14th centuries, they did not disappear: Robert I of Scotland used one to defeat Sir Henry de Bohun in single combat at the start of the Battle of Bannockburn in 1314, and they enjoyed a sustained revival in use among heavily armored equestrian combatants in the 15th century.

Most medieval European battle axes had a socketed head (meaning that the broader, butt-end of the blade contained an opening into which a wooden haft was inserted), and some included langets—long strips of metal affixed to the faces of the haft to prevent it from being damaged during combat. Occasionally the cheeks of the axehead bore engraved, etched, punched or inlayed decorative patterns. Late-period battle axes tended to be of all-metal construction.

Such medieval polearms as the halberd and the poleaxe were variants of the basic battle-axe form.

Horseman's axe, circa 1475. This is an example of a battle axe that was tailored for the use of a mounted knight. Note the hole on the haft for the accommodation of a leather strap to be passed over the wrist, the belt-hook for ease of carrying, and the langets. This example dates from the last quarter of the 15th century and is 69 cm (27 inches) long. The wooden haft is modern. The blade's punched decoration suggests German make. Variations of this basic design include the fitting of a hammer face instead of a pointed pick behind the blade.As we have seen, battle axes themselves had gone somewhat out of favor with Europe's mounted knights between about 1100 and 1400 (although King Richard the Lionheart had famously wielded one while fighting at Jaffa in 1192, as did Robert the Bruce at Bannockburn in 1314). Expensive swords with long, straight, steel blades intended for slashing became, overwhelmingly, the preferred weapon of upper-class combatants during this period. Such swords were indeed fearsome objects when wielded expertly against foot soldiers clad in boiled-leather body armor or even chain-mail covered knights on horseback.

However, when steel plate-armor covering almost all of a knight's body—and incorporating features specifically designed to defeat swords—was developed in the 15th century, a fresh generation of hafted weapons with greater impact-power had to be devised and adopted as a counter-measure by European armies. (Despite the significance of this development, swords would never lose their prestige as the premier implement of war and symbol of knighthood, changing over the duration of the later Middle Ages from a broad-bladed cutting instrument with a semi-rounded tip into a narrow thrusting instrument with a sharply pointed tip, capable of penetrating any "chinks in the armor" of a fully encased opponent: see, for example, the entry for estoc).

The newly invented flanged mace, for example, was no crude bludgeon like its predecessors. The vertical flanges projecting at regular intervals from its head could fracture plate armor and smash into underlying body tissue—yet it was a much cheaper weapon to make than a sword, whose blade was inclined in any case to glance harmlessly off the smooth, curved plates of a well-designed suit of armor if used in a chopping manner.

Battle axes took the flanged mace's innovatory design concept one step further. By concentrating the weight of a single, sharpened, crescent-shaped wedge on a small target area of metal plate, the battle axe was capable of slicing through an opponent's armor and cutting deeply into the exposed flesh beneath. A sharp, sometimes curved pick was often fitted to the rear of the battle axe's blade to provide the user with a secondary weapon of penetration. A stabbing spike could be added, too, as a finial.

Similarly, the war hammer evolved in late-medieval times with the aim of punching its spiked head through helmets or breastplates. It eventually became common for these various kinds of impact weapons to be made entirely from metal, thus doing away with reinforced wooden hafts. But the increased use of gunpowder-driven projectiles by armies in the field during the 1600s—and the associated demise of elaborate plate armor—rendered the battle axe and its cousins redundant as weapons of war, and they passed into history.

A useful visual guide to high-medieval battle axes, contemporary with their employment, are the scenes of warfare depicted in the Maciejowski Bible (Morgan Bible) of circa 1250.[1]

Battle axes also came to figure as heraldic devices on the coats of arms of several English and mainland European families.

[edit] Post-medieval axesBattle axes were eventually phased out at the end of the 16th century as military tactics began to revolve increasingly around the use of gunpowder. However, as late as the 1640s, Prince Rupert—a Royalist general and cavalry commander during the English Civil War—is pictured carrying a battle axe, and this was not merely a decorative symbol of authority: the "short pole-axe" was adopted by Royalist cavalry officers to penetrate Roundhead troopers' helmets and cuirasses in close-quarters fighting,[3] and it was also used by their opponents: Sir Bevil Grenville was slain by a Parliamentarian pole-axe at the Battle of Lansdowne,[4] and Sir Richard Bulstrode was wounded by one at the Battle of Edgehill.

During Napoleonic times, and later on in the 19th century, farriers in army service carried long and heavy axes as part of their kit. Although these could be used in an emergency for fighting, their primary use was logistical: the branded hooves of deceased military horses needed to be removed in order to prove that they had indeed died (and had not been stolen). Napoleon's Pioneer Corps also carried axes that were used for clearing vegetation—a practice employed by similar units in other armies.

[edit] Asia[edit] Persia
Dervish with tabar-zinThe Tabarzin (Persian: تبرزین) (sometimes translated "saddle-hatchet") is the traditional battle axe of Persia (Iran). It bears one or two crescent-shaped blades. The long form of the tabar was about seven feet long, while a shorter version was about three feet long. What made the Persian axe unique is the very thin handle, which is very light and always metallic.[5]

The tabarzin is sometimes carried as a symbolic weapon by wandering dervishes (Muslim ascetic worshippers).
thanks wiki for all this info and all you reader send in your vote and opinion
Next episode is:Halabard vs.spear see you there

Persian weaponry is at times identical to East Indian weaponry because these two cultures have intermingled many times over the century. "Tabar" means axe, and "zin" originally meant weapon.[5]

[edit] IndiaThere are examples of the employment of the battle axe in ancient India. The Farasa or Parashu was the weapon of choice of Lord Parashu Ram. It is still borne by some of the heretic sects of Indian Sadhus. A typical Farasa could have single edge or double edge, with a hole for fixing a shaft. The cutting edge of Indian Farasa is invariably broad and the length of the haft could be about three to four feet. It is invariably made of wood/bamboo. In fact, examples of Farasa can still be seen displayed in Indian households—particularly in the villages.

During the 17th and 18th centuries, the tabar battle axe was a standard weapon of the mounted warriors of India, Afghanistan and what is now Pakistan. Made entirely of metal, it had a strongly curved blade and a hammer-headed poll and was often decorated with scroll work. Sometimes a small knife was inserted in the tabar's hollow haft. The Iranians wielded a similar weapon.

[edit] Sri LankaThe Keteriya was a type of battle axe that was used in ancient Sri Lanka. A keteriya consisted of a single edge and a short handle made of wood. This would allow the user to wield it with a single hand.

[edit] Vietnam
Dong Son axesBattle axe is one of the most common type of weapons found in Vietnamese ancient cultures, particularly Dong Son culture.

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PostSubject: Re: Sword vs Ax   Sun Dec 18, 2011 11:27 am

I'll read your quoted article here later. Before I get to that, I will say that the sword has always been viewed as the weapon of choice for over 5,000 years. It is the one tool that has proven the test of time to be "The" weapon of war. Even Firearms only have a history of a scant several hundred years; miniscule when compared to the life of the sword in combat.

The Axe is a cutting tool used for felling trees and separating limbs into manageable lengths. When a peasant army is formed to fight for the region's political leader or nobility, the peasant will grab what weapons are available to him including the axe. Some peoples of the Middle ages, chose to turn the axe into a weapon of war. It has proven to be a viable tool in wartime. Its best attribute is its ability to strip a shield away from an opponent by use of its lower curved beard; if the axe was crafted in such a manner.

Physically speaking the sword is considered formally to be more appropriate in wartime due to its serrated nature. Only a double - headed axe could compare to a serrated edge. Having two edges to the sword means you can attack an opponent from two directions. A traditional axe must have its edged surface moving in the direction of the opponent in order to have an effect. Therefore the sword is better because the axe can only attack in one direction.

When a double edged axe is used, the weight of the weapon is much more cumbersome than the sword. A double edged axe is much heavier than a sword which is inherently double edged.

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PostSubject: Re: Sword vs Ax   Sun Dec 18, 2011 3:52 pm

yes your information is quite correct so for this round asi alreayd suspected the winnner
COme in next time to see halabard vs pole sword
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PostSubject: Re: Sword vs Ax   Sat Apr 21, 2012 8:11 pm

Also, I believe an axe is a far better weapon for fighting a mace-and-chain. If you try to parry a mace-and-chain with a sword, the chain tends to wrap around the blade and snap it.
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